What is a Lottery?
A lottery is a form of gambling in which numbers are drawn to determine a prize winner. It is often used to raise funds for a public project, such as building or paving streets, or for charity. A lottery may be conducted by a state government or a private company. Several states have legalized lotteries, and the New York Times reported that sales of lottery tickets in the United States exceed $40 billion annually. In addition, the proceeds from the lottery are often a large percentage of local governments’ revenue.
In the short story Lottery by Katherine Anne Porter, the central character, Tessie, a middle-aged housewife, is late for The Lottery because she has to finish washing the dishes. She draws her slip from a box, but as she does so, an old man, who is something like the town patriarch, clearly doesn’t approve. He quotes a little traditional rhyme: “Lottery in June/Corn be heavy soon.”
The word lottery is Latin for the drawing of lots, and the practice has a long history. In early modern Europe, lottery-style games were popular for raising money for public works projects, and the earliest English lotteries were organized as a way to finance colonial expansion. Lotteries were common in the American colonies, despite strict Protestant prohibitions against gambling.
Tessie’s moral dilemma in the story shows how, even when a lottery is perceived as a bad thing, people can still make rational decisions to play it. If the entertainment value of winning a small sum is high enough for an individual, it can outweigh the disutility of losing that same amount of money. This is true of many kinds of lottery, including the financial lottery, where a group of participants pays a small sum to be selected for a chance at a bigger one.
When a lottery is run as a business, advertising necessarily focuses on persuading the target market to spend their money. It’s a message that obscures the fact that, as with all commercial products, lottery playing is highly regressive: It’s not only expensive but also disproportionately concentrated in lower-income neighborhoods. And while lottery advertising is coded to suggest that everybody plays, the truth is that only about 50 percent of Americans do.
Some critics of the lottery argue that it’s a tax on the stupid. But defenders of the game point out that people are going to gamble anyway, so why shouldn’t the government take some of the profits? Moreover, the lottery is an effective way to reduce state deficits, which are growing rapidly due to the recession. In addition, the government can use the money it gets from the lottery to fund public services like parks and education, or to help disadvantaged citizens in need. However, some of the lottery’s critics believe that its growth has outpaced its ability to provide these benefits. As a result, it’s unlikely that the lottery will disappear anytime soon. But it is certainly under increasing pressure to do so.